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Raymond A. Blacketer is lead pastor at First Cutlerville Christian Reformed Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan. He wrote his PhD in Historical Theology under the mentorship of Richard A. Muller at Calvin Theological Seminary. He has written articles on John Calvin, William Perkins, and Henry Ainsworth. He is currently working on The Reformation Commentary on Scripture. Volume 3: Exodus–Deuteronomy (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, forthcoming). His work on Calvin includes “No Escape by Deception: Calvin’s Exegesis of Lies and Liars in the Old Testament,” Reformation and Renaissance Review 10.3 (2008): 267–89, and The School of God. Pedagogy and Rhetoric in Calvin’s Interpretation of Deuteronomy, Studies in Early Modern Religious Reforms 3 (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2006).

Chapter 5 — Blaming Beza: The Development of Definite Atonement in the Reformed Tradition

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Henri A. G. Blocher

Henri A. G. Blocher was Gunter H. Knoedler Professor of Systematic Theology, Wheaton College Graduate School of Biblical and Theological Studies, and is doyen honoraire at the Faculté Libre de Théologie Évangélique in Vaux-sur-Seine, France, where he was formerly Professor of Systematic Theology and where he still teaches some courses. He was also President of the Fellowship of European Evangelical Theologians. He has contributed articles to many journals and multiauthor volumes. His books in English include Original Sin: Illuminating the Riddle (Leicester, UK: Apollos, 1997); Evil and the Cross (Leicester, UK: Apollos, 1994); In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis (Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 1984).

Chapter 20 — Jesus Christ the Man: Toward a Systematic Theology of Definite Atonement


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Amar Djaballah 

Amar Djaballah is Professor of Biblical Studies and Dean of the Faculté de Théologie Évangélique (affiliated with Acadia University) in Montréal, Canada. Djaballah received his MTh from the Faculté Libre de Théologie Évangélique, Vaux-sur-Seine, and his PhD from l’Université Paris I-Panthéon Sorbonne. He is the author of numerous books and articles in French, including a New Testament Greek grammar. Djaballah has written a book on the parables in French (Les paraboles aujourd’hui), which is soon to appear in English (Eerdmans, forthcoming), a short English monograph on Islam, and a forthcoming volume on hermeneutics published by les Éditions Excelsis. He is also the author of “Calvin and the Calvinists: An Examination of Some Recent Views,” Reformation Canada 5.1 (1982): 7–20.

Chapter 7 — Controversy on Universal Grace: A Historical Survey of Moïse Amyraut’s Brief Traitté de la Predestination


Sinclair B. Ferguson

Sinclair B. Ferguson, formerly Senior Minister of First Presbyterian Church, Columbia, South Carolina, serves as Professor of Systematic Theology at Redeemer Theological Seminary, as well as Distinguished Visiting Professor at Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. A graduate of the University of Aberdeen, he has contributed to several multiauthor volumes, including The New Dictionary of Theology (Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 1998) and The New Bible Commentary (Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 1994). His own works include By Grace Alone: How the Grace of God Amazes Me (Lake Mary, FL: Reformation Trust, 2010); In Christ Alone: Living the Gospel-Centered Life (Lake Mary, FL: Reformation Trust, 2007); and The Holy Spirit (Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 1997).

Chapter 22 — “Blessèd Assurance, Jesus Is Mine”?: Definite Atonement and the Cure of Souls


Lee Gatiss

Lee Gatiss is the Director of Church Society, and Adjunct Lecturer in Church History at Wales Evangelical School of Theology. He has studied history and theology at Oxford and Cambridge, and has a ThM in Historical and Systematic Theology from Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. He trained for ministry at Oak Hill Theological College, London, and has served in several Anglican churches. His most recent publications include a new two-volume annotated edition of The Sermons of George Whitefield (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012); For Us and for Our Salvation: ‘Limited Atonement’ in the Bible, Doctrine, History, and Ministry (London: Latimer Trust, 2012); and The True Profession of the Gospel: Augustus Toplady and Reclaiming Our Reformed Foundations (London: Latimer Trust, 2010). He is one of the editors of the multivolume critical edition of The Acts of the Synod of Dordt 1618/19 (Göttingen, Germany: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, forthcoming).

Chapter 6 — The Synod of Dort and Definite Atonement


David Gibson 

David Gibson is ordained in the International Presbyterian Church and a minister of Trinity Church, Aberdeen, Scotland. He studied theology at Nottingham University and King’s College London, and completed a doctorate in Historical and Systematic Theology at the University of Aberdeen. He has contributed to “But My Words Will Never Pass Away”: The Enduring Authority of the Christian Scriptures, ed. D. A. Carson, 2 vols. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, forthcoming), is the author of Reading the Decree: Exegesis, Election and Christology in Calvin and Barth (London/New York: T. & T. Clark, 2009), and coedited, with Daniel Strange, Engaging with Barth: Contemporary Evangelical Critiques (Nottingham, UK: Apollos, 2008; New York: T. & T. Clark, 2009).

Chapter 1 — Sacred Theology and the Reading of the Divine Word: Mapping the Doctrine of Definite Atonement


Jonathan Gibson

Jonathan Gibson is a PhD candidate in Hebrew Studies at Cambridge University. He studied for a Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Northern Ireland, and then worked as a physiotherapist for several years, before completing a Bachelor of Divinity degree at Moore Theological College, Sydney, Australia. He is currently researching inner-biblical exegesis within the Hebrew Bible, with specific reference to the book of Malachi. He is the author of “‘Cutting off “Kith and Kin,” “Er and Onan”?’: Interpreting an Obscure Phrase in Malachi 2:12,” JBL (forthcoming); “Obadiah” in the NIV Proclamation Bible (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2013); and “Jonathan Edwards: A Missionary?,” Themelios 36.3 (2011): 380–402.

Chapter 1 — Sacred Theology and the Reading of the Divine Word: Mapping the Doctrine of Definite Atonement

Chapter 12 — For Whom Did Christ Die?: Particularism and Universalism in the Pauline Epistles

Chapter 13 — The Glorious, Indivisible, Trinitarian Work of God in Christ: Definite Atonement in Paul’s Theology of Salvation


Matthew S. Harmon

Matthew S. Harmon is Professor of New Testament Studies at Grace College and Theological Seminary. In addition to a degree in communications from Ohio University, he holds a Master of Divinity from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School and a PhD from Wheaton College in Biblical Theology. He is the author of She Must and Shall Go Free: Paul’s Isaianic Gospel in Galatians (Berlin: deGruyter, 2010); “Philippians” in the NIV Proclamation Bible (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2013), and Philippians, A Mentor Commentary (Ross-shire, UK: Christian Focus, forthcoming). He contributed numerous articles to The Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary, ed. Tremper Longman III (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2013), and is currently working on Galatians, Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation (Nashville: B&H, forthcoming).

Chapter 11 — For the Glory of the Father and the Salvation of His People: Definite Atonement in the Synoptics and Johannine Literature 


Michael A. G. Haykin

Michael A. G. Haykin is Professor of Church History and Biblical Spirituality at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He received his MRel and ThD from the University of Toronto. He is the author and editor of a number of books in Patristics and English Baptist history, including Rediscovering the Church Fathers: Who They Were and How They Shaped the Church (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2011);“At the Pure Fountain of Thy Word”: Andrew Fuller as an Apologist (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 2004); The Spirit of God: The Exegesis of 1 and 2 Corinthians in the Pneumatomachian Controversy of the Fourth Century (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1994); One Heart and One Soul: John Sutcliff of Olney, His Friends, and His Times (Darlington, UK: Evangelical Press, 1994).

Chapter 2 — “We Trust in the Saving Blood”: Definite Atonement in the Ancient Church


Paul Helm

Paul Helm is a teaching fellow at Regent College, Vancouver. He studied at Worcester College, Oxford University. Recent publications include Calvin at the Centre (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); Calvin: A Guide for the Perplexed (London: Continuum, 2008); and John Calvin’s Ideas (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004).

Chapter 4 — Calvin, Indefinite Language, and Definite Atonement

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David S. Hogg

David S. Hogg is Associate Dean of Academic Affairs and Associate Professor of History and Doctrine at Beeson Divinity School, Samford University. He holds degrees from the University of Toronto; Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia; and the University of St. Andrews. He has contributed to a number of edited volumes, including Great Is Thy Faithfulness? Reading Lamentations as Sacred Scripture (Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2011); The Lord’s Supper, Remembering and Proclaiming Christ until He Comes (Nashville: B&H Academic, 2010); The Dictionary of Historical Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000). He has written on Anselm of Canterbury in numerous places, but most notably in his Anselm of Canterbury: The Beauty of Theology (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2004).

Chapter 3 — “Sufficient for All, Efficient for Some”: Definite Atonement in the Medieval Church


Robert Letham 

Robert Letham is Director of Research and Senior Lecturer in Systematic and Historical Theology at Wales Evangelical School of Theology, Adjunct Professor at Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and a Presbyterian minister with twenty-five years’ pastoral experience. He has degrees from the University of Exeter, Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and the University of Aberdeen (PhD). He is the author of A Christian’s Pocket Guide to Baptism (Ross-shire, UK: Christian Focus, 2012); Union with Christ (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 2011); The Westminster Assembly: Reading Its Theology in Historical Context (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 2009); Through Western Eyes (Ross-shire, UK: Mentor, 2007); The Holy Trinity (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 2004); The Lord’s Supper (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R, 2001); and The Work of Christ (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993). He has contributed chapters to a number of books, including Shapers of Christian Orthodoxy (Nottingham, UK: Apollos, 2010).

Chapter 16 — The Triune God, Incarnation, and Definite Atonement


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Donald Macleod

Donald Macleod is an ordained minister of the Free Church of Scotland. Since 1978 he was Professor of Systematic Theology at the Free Church of Scotland, Edinburgh, until his recent retirement. He graduated MA from the University of Glasgow in 1958, and was awarded an honorary DD from Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, in 2008. His many books include Jesus Is Lord: Christology, Yesterday and Today (Ross-shire, UK: Christian Focus, 2000); A Faith to Live By (Ross-shire, UK: Christian Focus, 2000); and The Person of Christ (Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 1998).

Chapter 15 — Definite Atonement and the Divine Decree


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J. Alec Motyer

J. Alec Motyer is a retired minister of the Church of England, having served in parishes in Wolverhampton, Bristol, London, and Bournemouth. In between pastoral work, he served as Tutor, Vice-Principal and Principal, respectively, of Tyndale Hall, Clifton Theological College, and Trinity College, Bristol. He was educated at Dublin University and Wycliffe Hall, Oxford, and holds the degrees of BA, MA, BD (Dublin), and DD (Lambeth/Oxford). His most recent publications are Preaching for Simpletons (Ross-shire, UK: Christian Focus, 2013); and Isaiah by the Day: A New Devotional Translation (Ross-shire, UK: Christian Focus, 2011). He is best known for his commentary The Prophecy of Isaiah (Leicester, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 1993), as well as serving as the series editor for the Old Testament commentaries in The Bible Speaks Today series.

Chapter 10 — “Stricken for the Transgression of My People”: The Atoning Work of Isaiah’s Suffering Servant


John Piper 

John Piper is founder and teacher of desiringGod.org, and Chancellor of Bethlehem College and Seminary, Minneapolis. He received his BA from Wheaton College, BD from Fuller Theological Seminary, and doctorate in Theology (New Testament) from the University of Munich. He served thirty-three years as Senior Pastor of Bethlehem Baptist Church, Minneapolis. His books include Desiring God (Colorado Springs: Multnomah, revised and expanded 2011); What Jesus Demands from the World (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2006); God Is the Gospel (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2004); and Don’t Waste Your Life (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2003).

Chapter 23 — “My Glory I Will Not Give to Another”: Preaching the Fullness of Definite Atonement to the Glory of God


Thomas R. Schreiner

Thomas R. Schreiner is a preaching pastor at Clifton Baptist Church and the James Buchanan Harrison Professor of New Testament Interpretation at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. He received his doctorate in New Testament from Fuller Theological Seminary. He is the author of numerous books, including The King in His Beauty: A Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2013); Galatians, Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2010); and New Testament Theology: Magnifying God in Christ (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 2008).

Chapter 14 — “Problematic Texts” for Definite Atonement in the Pastoral and General Epistles

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Daniel Strange

Daniel Strange is Academic Vice-Principal and Tutor in Culture, Religion, and Public Theology at Oak Hill Theological College, London. He received both his BA and PhD from the University of Bristol, England. With Gavin D’Costa and Paul Knitter, he is coauthor of Only One Way? Three Christian Responses to the Uniqueness of Christ in a Pluralistic World (London: SCM, 2011); coeditor with David Gibson of Engaging with Barth: Contemporary Evangelical Critiques (Nottingham, UK: Apollos, 2008; New York: T. & T. Clark, 2009); and author of The Possibility of Salvation among the Unevangelized: An Analysis of Inclusivism in Recent Evangelical Theology (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 2001).

Chapter 21 — Slain for the World?: The “Uncomfortability” of the “Unevangelized” for a Universal Atonement


Carl R. Trueman 

Carl R. Trueman is Paul Woolley Professor of Church History at Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, and pastor of Cornerstone Presbyterian Church (OPC), Ambler, Pennsylvania. He has an MA from the University of Cambridge and a PhD from the University of Aberdeen. Recent publications include The Creedal Imperative (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012) and Histories and Fallacies (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2010).

Chapter 8 — Atonement and the Covenant of Redemption: John Owen on the Nature of Christ’s Satisfaction


Stephen J. Wellum

Stephen J. Wellum is Professor of Christian Theology at The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, and editor of The Southern Baptist Journal of Theology. He received his MDiv and PhD in Systematic Theology from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School. He is coauthor with Peter J. Gentry of Kingdom through Covenant: A Biblical-Theological Understanding of the Covenants (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2012). In addition to various journal articles, he has contributed chapters to a number of books, including The Church: Jesus’ Covenant Community (Nashville: B&H Academic, 2013); Whomever He Wills: A Surprising Display of Sovereign Mercy (Cape Coral, FL: Founders Press, 2012); The Deity of Christ (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2011); Faith Comes by Hearing: A Response to Inclusivism (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2008); Believer’s Baptism: Sign of the New Covenant in Christ (Nashville: B&H Academic, 2007); Reclaiming the Center: Confronting Evangelical Accommodation in Postmodern Times (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2004); and Beyond the Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical Christianity (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2003).

Chapter 19 — The New Covenant Work of Christ: Priesthood, Atonement, and Intercession

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Garry J. Williams

Garry J. Williams is Director of the John Owen Centre for Theological Study at London Theological Seminary, and Visiting Professor of Historical Theology at Westminster Seminary, Philadelphia. He read theology at Oxford University, where he completed a doctorate on Hugo Grotius’s understanding of the atonement. He has published on subjects including the history of evangelicalism and the atonement, and is writing a biblical, historical, and systematic exposition of penal substitutionary atonement.

Chapter 17 — The Definite Intent of Penal Substitutionary Atonement

Chapter 18 Punishment God Cannot Twice Inflict: The Double Payment Argument Redivivus



Paul R. Williamson 

Paul R. Williamson is Lecturer in Old Testament at Moore Theological College, Sydney. He studied theology at the Irish Baptist College, Belfast, and received his doctorate from Queen’s University, Belfast. He is coeditor of Exploring Exodus (Nottingham, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 2008), and author of Sealed with an Oath: Covenant in God’s Unfolding Purposes (Nottingham, UK: Inter-Varsity Press, 2007). He has contributed articles to the Dictionary of the Old Testament series (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2003–2008).


Chapter 9 — “Because He Loved Your Forefathers”: Election, Atonement, and Intercession in the Pentateuch